Internationalization Of Higher Education In The East Asian Context
Time: 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM
Chair: Hantian Wu
1) Liberal Arts Education In TheEast Asian Context: Internationalization And Localization - Leping Mou
2) A Comparative Study Of Internationalization Of Higher Education Policies In China, Japan And South Korea - You Zhang
3) China’s International Student Recruitment As “Outward-Oriented” Higher Education Internationalization: A Historical Narrative For Analyzing Present Challenges - Cassidy Gong
This proposed panel includes three paper discussing many aspects of internationalization of higher education in the east asian context. The first paper is entitled “Liberal Arts Education in the East Asian Context: Internationalization and Localization. It explores the dynamics of internationalization and localization in the curriculum, teaching, and learning in former Christian universities in the mainland China and the universities with Christian background in Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea. The paper investigated how their curriculum followed the American liberal arts model and how they adapted into local contexts with Confucian tradition and local culture. The second paper is entitled “A Comparative Study of Internationalization of Higher Education Policies in China, Japan and South Korea.” This paper aims at comparing the development of policies on internationalization of higher education (IHE) in China, Japan and South Korea and argues that IHE polices in the three countries have been converging on the whole despite different starting points in particular for Japan. The third paper is entitled China’s International Student Recruitment as “Outward-Oriented” Higher Education Internationalization: A Historical Narrative for Analysing Present Challenges. It concentrates on China’s internationalization student recruitment as a dimension of its “outward-oriented” higher education internationalization for image and influence enhancement. The paper first reviews the first and the second phases of China’s international student recruitment as historical contexts, and then analyses existing challenges of the present phase and discusses their historical roots based on the historical narrative. The conference theme of reciprocity is addressed in the first paper, where the American liberal arts model is adapted into the local confucian context. The conference theme of quality is embedded in the second and the third paper, where a main driver for internationalization at the national level is to improve the quality of the national higher education system.
National Responses To Internationalization
Time: 13:30 - 15:00
Chair: Ka-Ho Mok
1) The Internationalization Of Brazilian Federal Vet Network: Emerging Findings And Strategies - Claudia Schiedeck Soares De Souza
The Brazilian Federal Network of Vocational Educaation Institutes was created in 2008. The new federal institutes were tasked with offering free education for regions that didn’t have any kind of access for both higher and technical education. In 2011, a new Ministry of Education policy directive on internationalization in Higher Education, the Science Without Borders Program, posed new challenges for these institutes. So, into this new world context, the Federal Institutes in Brazil were designed to be like polytechnics linked to a highly interconnected, interdependent and apparently almost hegemonic planet in its educational policies and their financing (Ball, 2012; Castells, 2000a; Dale, 2000). This study will report on research on the internationalization process in Brazilian VET Federal Institutes aiming to situate them in the context in which they were created and how they are responding to the challenges of globalization and internationalization of education (Altbach & Knight, 2007). Consideration is given to their unique characteristics in offering of High School/Technical Programs and Higher Education and in undertaking research. Emerging findings of this review suggest that the first international experiences, specially with Canadian Colleges, may have triggered new strategies for future Federal Institutes partnerships that include: respecting institutional diversity; social technology transfer and innovation; and, building long-term relationships that go beyond the traditional and hierarchical north-south international cooperation and that are related to the themes of reciprocity and inclusivity proposed by the conference. Presenting these results to the academic community will allow us to expose these experiences as well as to discuss new approaches of the internationalization process for a segment of Higher Education that has not been studied much about this perspective.
2) Managing Sustainable Internationalization In Developing Countries: Case Study Of Russia - Ekaterina Minaeva
In May 2017, by the new Presidential order, internationalization of higher education and inbound student mobility were included in the Strategic Agenda of Russia’s development as top priorities. This decision resulted not only in heavy additional funding provided for this aim, but in reconsideration and reflection on internationalization policies and practices that are currently implemented in Russia.
Our group of researchers at Higher School of Economics works on policy analysis of internationalization and provides expertise for the policy-makers in this area. In the paper, we focus on sustainability and risks related to internationalization of higher education for the developing countries based on case of Russia.
While the national policies in Russia focus mostly on international students, internationalization has many implications for the whole higher education system. In our paper, we aim to cover a wider scale and discuss sustainability of internationalization in Russia on a systemic level, provide analysis of gaps in current policies and discuss the ways of their resolution.
In particular, we focus on challenges related to understanding of internationalization by various actors, quality of recruitment, social integration of international students, as well as the implications for sustainability of the labour market. The paper provides an evaluation of how current initiatives pay off as one synchronized concept and what are the possible risks of internationalization in the Russian context.
We would like to focus specifically on risks of internationalization relevant for other developing countries that seek to identify gaps in their policy solutions, and we hope to initiate the discussion on successful practices of risk management in internationalization on a national level based on the conclusions of our analysis.
3) ‘Uneven Consequences’ Of Internationalization Of Higher Education In China: A Critical Epistemological Perspective - Yang Song
According to the Institute of International Education, the total number of inbound international students in China has reached 489,200 in 2018, ranking the first in Asia and the third in the world. Nevertheless, it remains largely unknown how international students with diverse life trajectories understand and live out their experiences in internationalizing Chinese universities (Tian & Lu 2018). Adopting a critical epistemological perspective (Chen 2010), the present study examines international students’ investment in multiple forms of capital (Bourdieu 1986) during their study in English-Medium-Instruction (EMI) Master’s degree programmes in a top-rate comprehensive university in Shanghai, China. The ethnographic classroom observation, in-depth student interviews and curriculum document analysis converge to reveal that the EMI curriculum has constructed an implicit hegemonic hierarchy among students based on their pre-enrolment possessions of linguistic capital of English as a(n) (academic) lingua franca and cultural capital concerning relevant academic norms and discipline-specific knowledge. Students’ investment strategies are also influenced by their epistemological stances towards China as an alternative, equally legitimate player other than the Global North in the world knowledge politics. In addition, these students differed in their investments in learning the Chinese language and developing social relations in China based on their perceptions of China's role in the regional and global geopolitics. It is hence argued that the international students' ‘uneven’ patterns of capital investment are shaped by their varied, sometimes contesting, positions structured by and/or stances towards multiple frames of reference, including (1) the language politics of English as an academic lingua franca, (2) the Global-North-dominated knowledge politics in the academia, and (3) the re-emergence of China as a world ‘power’ as well as Chinese as a regional lingua franca. Critical implications on IHE policymaking and curricula design are proposed in order to foster educational equality.
4) Playing The Field: Irish Third Level And Internationalization, Creating Longstanding Global Relationships Or In It For The Money; And What About The Students? - Emmeline Searson
The increased dialogue in Ireland amongst third level institutions around internationalisation and the Irish government’s 2010 international education policy ‘Investing in Global Relationships’ show a clear move to establish Ireland as a world class destination for students to study in. A core part of this strategy was the creation of a brand in which to promote Ireland as a top class educational destination for students. Ireland’s 2016 policy on international education shows an emphasis on student recruitment (Yang 2017) which some argue is not the correct path on which to continue. Proponents of a more holistic type of internationalization (Hudzik 2011; Knight 1999) argue that internationalization is heading in a direction which is too financially focused and one that needs to realign with more academic and educational values (O’Malley 2015). Much of the Irish governmental strategy has filtered down to institutions and so impacts on students. This study aims to understand students, faculty, staff and senior management’s perception and experience of internationalisation of education. International students studying at postgraduate level in Ireland has increased by 85% since 2010. (Yang 2010) so this research focuses on experiences of students studying at this level in Ireland. This research looks specifically at Canadian students studying overseas and so will be of interest to this audience.
In examining the experiences of all stakeholders there is an opportunity to improve the quality of what is offered to international students coming to Ireland. The country is at a crossroads and I believe has a lot to learn from the Canadian model of internationalization, which is more holistic and sustainable. For the purposes of this conference I would run a roundtable session, which first presents the current situation in Ireland and then to open up discussion on what might be best next steps for Ireland using the experiences of internationalization in Canada.
Internationalization Of Higher Education Around The World In The Age Of The Bologna Process
Time: 15:30 - 17:00
Chair: Hila Zahavi
1) The Bologna Process As A Foreign Policy Endeavour - Hannah Moscovitz
The presentation will discuss the Bologna Process through a foreign policy lens, highlighting its Global Strategy and the EU’s role therein. Through a critical examination of the externalization of the Bologna Process and the underlying motives behind it, the paper aims to launch a discussion on the use of higher education as a foreign policy tool by EU actors and institutions.
2) The Internationalization Of Higher Education In Canada: Interactions Between Global Discourses And Local Institutions - Conrad King
This paper focuses the analytical lenses of political science onto the institutions where many of us work and learn – the Canadian university. It asks: why has the internationalization of Canadian higher education adopted a quasi-market dynamic, emphasizing competition between universities and states, to attract international students (especially from Asia)? Concurrent with these developments, a different form of internationalization has been underway in Europe vis-à-vis the Bologna Process – an inter-governmental initiative to harmonize higher education systems across Europe. Despite explicit efforts to externally transmit ‘Bologna’ ideas, and despite shared norms between Canada and Europe, the Europeanization of higher education has had marginal effects on the internationalization policies of Canadian universities. This leads to a corollary question: Why has ‘Europe’ had such little normative or cognitive effect on the internationalization of Canadian higher education? To answer these questions, and to address gaps in our understanding of trans-national policy transfer and diffusion, I adopt a discursive institutionalist framework and suggest novel mechanisms for institutional change (highlighting how domestic actors reflect or refract discourses emerging from international organizations, when making or justifying policy choices).
3) The Bologna Process In Israel As A Reflection Of EU-Israel Relations - Hila Zahavi
This paper examines the Israeli perceptions towards the Bologna Process as well as outlines its reactions to it. Specifically, the paper investigates the landscape of interests among Israeli policy-makers (from both political and institutional levels) in relation to the European higher education reforms. Through interviews with policy-makers and a qualitative analysis of official documents and political discussions, the article also follows how the response to Bologna in Israel has developed, and how the Bologna Process was perceived in Israel. Relying on the theoretical frameworks of normative power and external perceptions, the article elaborates how the Bologna Process’ trajectory in Israel reflects a wider picture of EU-Israeli relations, and Israeli perceptions of Europe and the EU. The study contributes to the discussion of the use of European higher education policies as a tool in foreign policy, as part of the tool kit of Europe's normative power. Thus, the paper calls to enhance research of higher education and other ‘soft policy’ areas in the study of foreign policy and international relations.
Twenty years after its launch, the Bologna Process has sparked global interest as an example of higher education collaboration and specifically, as a facilitator of internationalisation strategies. This panel aims to reflect on higher education internationalisation trends and processes in non-European countries, highlighting the role and influence of the Bologna Process therein. By examining the extent and manner in which internationalisation processes are influenced by initiatives developing in the European Higher Education Area, the panel will shed light on the European influence on global higher education internationalisation. Through a comparative lens, the panel also offers insight into how internationalisation strategies may differ and/or converge around the world.
The Panel will take the form of a guided discussion between presenters in which the European influence on higher education internationalisation will be scrutinised. Highlighting internationalisation policies in non-EU countries and taking into consideration the EU’s interests in the global higher education arena, the panel will offer an interactive discussion on the global permeation of European ideas and reforms and their implications for higher education policy.
The proposed panel was conceived as part of the ‘Near-EU’ international research network, funded by the Jean-Monnet Programme of the European Commission.
As part of their work at the Simone Veil Centre, Hannah and Hila are engaged in the management of the ‘Near-EU’ international research network. With partners from around the world, the network’s research examines higher education internationalisation trends and processes in Canada, New Zealand, Israel, Singapore, Greece, Germany and Slovenia, highlighting how they intersect with developments occurring in the European Higher Education Area.
For more information about the project see: http://neareu.eu
Institutional Responses To Internationalization
Time: 10:00 AM - 11:30 AM
Chair: Merli Tamtik
1) The Participation Of Hong Kong And Macau Universities In Europe-Asia Partnerships Under The Impact Of The New Silk Road (NSR) Initiative - Sanfeng Miao
Brexit and the United States’ apparent dismissal of international cooperation opportunities have cast doubt on globalization and higher education internationalization. However, amid this backdrop, China has launched the New Silk Road (NSR) project, a global initiative that aims to promote collaboration across the Europe-Asian continents. As one of the initiative’s top priorities, collaboration between higher education institutions in China and Europe has tremendous potential. Although the current discussions predominantly focus on the responses of universities located on the Chinese Mainland, it is worth noting that universities in Hong Kong and Macau, two Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of China that have European heritage, are also participating in the NSR to great effect. Through gathering and analyzing information from the strategic plans and websites of 8 University-Grand-Committee funded universities in Hong Kong and 1 public comprehensive university in Macau, and conducting interview with the Senior International Officers of the universities, this study will examine how these institutions have responded to the NSR plan by establishing Euro-Asian partnerships and initiating student and faculty exchange.
This paper presentation emphases on the impact of national policies on institutional collaborations and partnerships between Asia and Europe, which fits the theme of "reciprocity". It will also reveal to the audience the ways that internationalization plays out in the greater China area, and more importantly, bring about the discussion on the impacts of national policies on the internationalization process of universities and colleges. This paper presentation session aims to be interactive. The presenter will not only share the results of the research, but also encourage the audience to reflect on the national policies they are familiar with that promote or hinder higher education internationalization and have discussions about plausible institutional responses towards the aforementioned national policies.
2) The Case For Enhancing Student Mobility Programs For Aboriginal Students in Canadian Universities - Carlos Vargas
Canadian aboriginal students are absent in the conversation of international student mobility. It is not clear if the expansion of internationalization in recent years has included student minority groups.
This presentation explores the extent to which universities incorporate international programs and initiatives aimed at aboriginal students. The lack of publicly available data makes difficult for advocates of aboriginal higher education to document whether aboriginal students are equipped with the skills and competencies to navigate globalization. This talk will present preliminary conclusions and will attempt to bring attention to this important issue.
3) Higher Education Internationalization As A Factor Of Improving University Competitiveness - Tetyana Marena
The terms of tough competition in which universities operate all over the world require, on the one hand, the expansion of educational services markets through the internationalization of educational activities, and on the other hand, finding the ways of enhancing the level of universities’ competitiveness. Only competitive university can survive on global educational services markets, successfully competing with other institutions of higher education. At the same time, universities’ active participation in the process of internationalization often provides good chance for them to obtain new competitive advantages.
The applicant had the opportunity to study the peculiarities of the internationalization of educational activities in Europe by undergoing training and internship within international programs at the following institutions: University of York (Great Britain), Universite d'Auvergne Clermont-Ferrand I (France), Vytautas Magnus University (Lithuanian Republic), University of Tartu (Estonian Republic). In order to find out similarities and differences in the higher education internationalization progress in different parts of the world, to make a comparative analysis of regional peculiarities of internationalization and its impact on the higher education quality and competitiveness of universities in the global educational space, it is essential to study relevant experience of North American, in particular, Canadian universities in this respect.
Participation in the conference by presenting the paper and discussing results of the research, communicating with scholars and practitioners will be essential both theoretically and practically. From the point of view of scientific importance it will be interesting to highlight the current ways and topical problems of education internationalization and its impact on the competitiveness of the universities in different regions of the world. Moreover, Ukraine's integration into the global educational space requires formation of appropriate strategy for internationalization by institutions of higher education. In this context, the practical experience of Canadian universities in the field of internationalization is extremely valuable.
4) Finnish-Russian Double Degrees: Why Internationalization Is Unsustainable - Svetlana Shenderova
This article presents the result of the EDUneighbours research project focused on Finnish-Russian double degrees. These degree programmes are the cases of internationalisation of higher education between two neighbour countries from different political blocks united by the European Higher Education Area. Where Russia joined the Bologna Process in 2003 it provided the unique opportunity to develop reciprocity of national higher education systems and compatibility of institutional environments within partner universities. In addition, the series of funding programmes Finnish government (since 2005) and Russian government (since 2006) provided the administrative and financial support for double degrees development. However, these study programmes have been unsustainable since their launch till now. For example, none of partnerships is able to provide enrollment each study year; the partners do not unite their curricula; quality assurance procedures are different etc.
This study uses transaction costs and institutional approach to answer such research questions as follows: How national policies of internationalisation influence on its implementation at the universities studied? Why institutional arrangements of the partner universities are so rigid to develop sustainable double degrees even with reliable and old international partners? Why Finnish-Russian double degrees are not sustainable?
The article is based on the survey of all Finnish universities and university of applied sciences and their Russian partners; the study of dynamics the cases in world university rankings; the semi-structured interviews of internal university stakeholders whose views are represented by academic heads of double degrees and their teachers, administrators in the central and faculty offices and double degree graduates conducted in 2017 by the research team of EDUneighbours project.
Regional Responses To Internationalization
Time: 13:00 - 14:30
Chair: James Jowi
1) Student Mobility Programmes In SEAMEO-RIHED, UMAP, And Campus Asia – Challenges And Impacts On Higher Education Regionalization From Quality Assurance Agencies And University’s Perspectives - Angela Yung Chi Hou
A new trend in the internationalization of higher education in the 21st century is the increasing emphasis on regional level collaboration and excellence initiatives. One of the significant developments is "the regional level framework for academic credit systems, quality assurance, and qualifications frameworks as these reforms are based on a closer alignment of systems and policies". To date, most efforts towards enhancing higher education regionalisation have been within South East Asia where there are three Asian organisations aiming at intensification of the integration of higher education systems across the region, including ASEAN, UMAP and CAMPUS Asia.
In 2003, ASEAN decided to launch several mobility programmes in order to strengthen relations and activities among higher education institutions through the establishment of the ASEAN University Network (AUN) and the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO) + / Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development (RIHED) (SEAMEO-RIHED). One of the most influential mobility programmes by SEAMEO-RIHED is the International Mobility for Students (AIMS) programme, also called “M-I-T” (Malaysia-Indonesia-Thailand) launched in 2010.
The University Mobility in Asia and Pacific (UMAP) is a voluntary collective of government and non-governmental organizations, which was established in 1994. It aimed at enhancing student mobility through three types of exchange programmes in order to achieve a better and international understanding within each of the countries and territories in the Asia Pacific region of the cultural, economic and social systems of the other countries and territories in the region.
Established in 2011, CAMPUS Asia (Collective Action for Mobility Programme of University Students in Asia) is the other regional initiative of a student exchange programme launched by China, Japan and South Korea. With support from the three governments, quality assurance agencies are responsible for the implementation of the programme due to quality concern.
The aim of this paper is to examine the student mobility programmes of the three initiatives- in SEAMEO-RIHED, UMAP, and Campus Asia and provide a comparative analysis of the respective programmes in terms of the role of government, institutional involvement, quality assurance, and challenges from universities and quality assurance perspectives.
2) Sino-EU Cooperation In The Field Of Research And Innovation - Ying Li
This paper shares the study on Sino-EU cooperation in the field of Research and Innovation (R&I). After 1998, the first framework agreement between China and the EU at the official level, with the joint efforts of sides, Sino-EU R&I cooperation is improved and enriched, and achieved remarkable results. It is closely connected to the conference theme ‘reciprocity’.
This paper first analyzes the promoting and restrictive factors of EU-China R&I cooperation. Then it comes to the comparison between the EU R&I Policy and China’s Innovation Policy. Finally, through the typical case study “Dragon program”, this paper attempts to find out the problems in the R&I cooperation between the two sides and give some possible advice.
3) Theorizing Chinese Internationalization Strategies In Higher Education In The Context Of The “One Belt, One Road” Policy - Jing Wen
I'd like to share the similarities and differences between China's and western's internationalization process in higher education and analyze the influence of China's internationalization process on the globalization process.
This will help westerners better understand China and increase the link between China and world. As the biggest developing country in the world and the origin of east Asian culture, China's internationalization can exert a huge influence on other countries and knowing about China can help westerners understand and envisage east Asia, which are related to recipocity and inclusivity. Besides, China participate actively in the process of internationalization, its experience may be helpful for the sustainable development in other countries.
This proposal is suitable for "storytelling" format in which people from different areas and backgrounds can share and talk about their understandings or developments of internationalization in higher education.
4) Higher Education Internationalized: Net Value Addition For Students? - Kriti Dagar
International knowledge, ideas and ideologies are changing higher education system over the world. Cross-border activities such as student mobility, program mobility, provider mobility and teacher mobility are prominent branches that bring forward internationalization perspective and serve as a key stimulant impacting and molding higher education plans and practices. Countries over the world are strategically adopting new modes of delivering higher education targeting brand building and thereby serving larger societal goals. Intra-regional mobility especially that of student flows has been traditionally growing from developing to developed nations. The flows have either had a positional benefit that, higher education degree in an offshore environment has brought higher returns or the flows have served as a comparatively advantageous national development activity i.e. reciprocal exchange of students, teachers, programs or providers has led to spillover benefits to overall development.
However, given the diversified student population and the changing higher education priorities, the rationale of students adopting internationalized higher education needs to be looked into. Internationalization thereby should focus on inclusiveness and global citizenship to inject the right elements of higher education learning but higher education institutions by their very nature follow a 360-degree approach whereas international components of teaching learning are focused on national contexts and the center-periphery power relations. In such a scenario, the net value addition of internationalization to a student cannot be ascertained due to the absence of international and intercultural elements in the teaching-learning process. Thus, how to integrate students into internationalization especially as national boundaries are being blurred should be focused upon.
This paper discussion is aligned with reciprocity of Internationalization and seeks suggestions and inputs of scholars and researchers from world over as to how to aid internationalization to lead to value addition of students given the geographically clustered mobility.
Future Prospects For Internationalization And The Nation State In A Period Of Deglobalization
Time: 15:00 - 16:30
Facilitators: Tamara Dagen, Danica Fink-Hafner
The internationalisation of higher education (HE) has so far been critically linked to the role of the nation state, which has retained the upper hand in this policy area despite processes of globalisation.
This contribution has two aims. First, to present findings on the role played by the nation state in university strategies focused on a particular region, a role that in the past was geopolitically important for those states (including the geopolitical/colonial role of the state). An extensive comparative study of internationalisation strategies encompasses three public universities (Vienna, Granada and Lausanne) active in three states (Austria, Spain and Switzerland). Second, we seek to trigger discussion at Shaping Sustainable Futures for Internationalization in Higher Education conference held in June 2019 in Toronto on how processes of deglobalisation may impact the future internationalisation of HE.
In order to encourage conference participant interaction, we plan to prepare a short online questionnaire concerning the internationalisation of HE in a time of deglobalisation that has recently appeared, share the link to the online survey with conference participants with the help of the conference organisers and discuss the results during a conference session. For the survey, we shall use the 1KA open-source application for web surveys, which ensures anonymity and secure data management (www.1ka.si/d/en). Since conference participants are expected from various milieus (researchers, policymakers, practitioners), we are looking forward to a fruitful exchange of real-life insights and expert judgements regarding the potential continuity and change in the nation state’s role in the internationalisation of HE.